Conversation is a form of interactive, spontaneous communication between two or more people. Typically it occurs in spoken communication, as written exchanges are usually not referred to as conversations. The development of conversational skills and etiquette is an important part of socialization. The development of conversational skills in a new language is a frequent focus of language teaching and learning.
Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the structure and organization of human interaction, with a more specific focus on conversational interaction.
Definition and characterization
No generally accepted definition of conversation exists, beyond the fact that a conversation involves at least two people talking together. Consequently, the term is often defined by what it is not. A ritualized exchange such a mutual greeting is not a conversation, and an interaction that includes a marked status differential (such as a boss giving orders) is also not a conversation. An interaction with a tightly focused topic or purpose is also generally not considered a conversation. Summarizing these properties, one authority writes that "Conversation is the kind of speech that happens informally, symmetrically, and for the purposes of establishing and maintaining social ties."
The Conversation Papers (formerly Conversation Poetry Quarterly) is a UK-based poetry magazine founded in 2007 and produced by the The Conversation Paperpress. The magazine aims to promote the idea of poetry as a socially critical art and is the connected to the Dialecticist school of poetic thought.
In 2009 it became the English-language publication of The Conversation International - a radical writing and publishing collective with members from countries across the world, with the aim of creating a cross-cultural poetic dialogue through translation and co-operative publishing.
The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, etc. — have been applied to people in different countries and epochs, with rather different meanings. Typically, creole peoples are fully or almost fully descended from whiteEuropeancolonial settlers. Their language, culture and/or racial origin represents the creolization resulting from the interaction and adaptation of colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates, cuisines, etc.
The English word creole derives from the Frenchcréole, which in turn came from Portuguesecrioulo, which in turn came from Spanishcriollo. This word, a derivative of the verb criar ("to raise"), was coined in the 15th century, in the trading and military outposts established by Spain and Portugal in West Africa. It originally referred to descendants of the Spanish and Portuguese settlers who were born and raised overseas. While the Spanish and Portuguese may have originally reserved the term criollo and crioulo for people of strictly European descent, the criollo population came to be dominated by people of mixed ancestry (mestizos). This mixing happened relatively quickly in most Spanish and Portuguese colonies. The growth of a mixed population was due to both the scarcity of Spanish and Portuguese women in the settlements, and to the Spanish and Portuguese Crown policy of encouraging mixed marriages in the colonies to create loyal colonial populations.
Creole is a lightweight markup language, aimed at being a common markup language for wikis, enabling and simplifying the transfer of content between different wiki engines. The idea was conceived during a workshop at the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis. An EBNF grammar and XML interchange format for Creole have also been published. Creole was designed by comparing major wiki engines and using the most common markup for a particular wikitext element. If no commonality was found, the wikitext of the dominant wiki engine MediaWiki was usually chosen.
On July 4, 2007, the version 1.0 (final) of Creole was released, and a two-year development freeze was implemented to allow time for authors of wiki engines to adopt the new markup. Although development to the standard itself is frozen, discussion in the developer community regarding good practices in wiki markup design and about possible additions and changes for future Creole versions continues.
As of 2012, adoption of Creole is limited. Many wiki systems offer it as an option, but few use it by default and few wiki websites enable this optional feature.